- This Question seems to be flawed, there is just an argument between the Har Tzvi and Rav Shlomo Zalman whether an animal can turn on a light for you on shabbos or shut it off, both speak about electric
- Question: Why can you teach a watch dog to turn on a light when intruders come even if he will do it on Shabbos but you cannot ask a dog to turn a light on for you on Shabbos?
A. The Har Tzvi (Ohr Hachaim 1:174) says that if one
signals to a dog to light a fire or blow it out on Shabbos you are
transgressing the mitzvah of resting your animal on Shabbos even if this is an
indirect way of turning off the light it is considered a full-fledged melacha
because any melacha an animal does is considered its normal way of doing things
for them attributed to the owner.
Zalman Auerbach (Shulchan Shlomo 266:1) poskins that if you teach a dog to turn
on or off a light switch whenever an intruder comes you are allowed to have the
dog outside to do this function on Shabbos because it’s only indirect melacha.
C. Turning on an electric light is indirectly doing a melacha because you are just completing or breaking a circuit to allow the light to go on or off.
D. Dogs don’t have cognitive thinking and melacha needs cognitive thinking for humans to be liable, I.e meleches machsheves.
Answer: It is an abnormal way for a human to use a dog to blow out or light a fire but the way the dog does it is normal for them therefore the owners will be liable for not resting the dog. But completing or breaking the circuit by itself is indirect and is only liable if you have a cognitive intent to perform the act to cause the melacha to be done but since an animal doesn’t have a cognitive thought process and by definition the completing of the circuit is indirect even if the animal’s action is direct the owner would still be exempt. (See Dirshu Mishna Berura 246:3:12:8)
Question: Why aren’t we strict by
Shabbos candles to not light from one candle to another just as we are
stringent to not light Chanukah candles from one candle to another?
The Rema in Orach Chaim 674:1 says we have a custom to be strict by Chanukah
candles to not light them from one candle to another since the main mitzvah is
with one candle and the rest aren’t totally for the mitzvah (rather only to
glorify the mitzvah.)
Halachically one only needs one candle for Shabbos candles we light at least
two as a reminder of Shamor vizachor, keeping and remembering the Shabbos which
refers to the negative and positive mitzvos associated with Shabbos.
Shabbos candles were enacted for Shalom Bayis so it would be easy to see in the
house and make Shabbos more enjoyable.
D. One can light from one candle to another if there is an equal level of mitzvah for example two roommates on the first night of Chanukah can each light from each other’s candle.
Answer: Each Shabbos candle makes it brighter in the room and is more directly adding to the mitzvah of delighting in Shabbos so they each have equal Mitzvah status and can light one from the other even though it is enough with one. But by Chanukah there is nothing integrally being enhanced to the mitzvah by each extra candle it is just a way to beautify the mitzvah more by lighting an additional candle each day therefore one shouldn’t light from one candle to the other (See Dirshu footnote 7.)
Question: Why was it considered accepting Shabbos by mistake in a case of
a congregation that didn’t get a shofar until a few minutes before sunset and
they had davened maariv early and they can blow the minimal amount of shofar
blasts but once one lit Shabbos candles before lighting Chanukah candles by
accident it is not considered a mistake and he cannot light candles anymore by
A. The scenario of the shofar
could be if Rosh HaShana was Thursday/Friday and the shul did not have a
shofar. They sent someone to retrieve a shofar from a few towns over and he got
delayed and was not showing up. Late Friday afternoon they essentially gave up
and davened Kabbalah Shabbos and maariv early sometime between plag hamincha
and sunset. Then the guy came with the shofar. The Mishna Berura (600:7) says
that if there is no expert shofar blower who has not taken on Shabbos to blow
then one who already accepted Shabbos can blow the minimal amount without a
blessing. The Taz there says this is because they accepted Shabbos by mistake.
B. Accepting Shabbos early is essentially making a vow.
Answer: The answer is found in the Responsa Beis Shearim 3:93 in the name of his Rebbe, Rav Pearls who said that the difference is that the obligation for the mitzvah by shofar already existed when they brought in Shabbos and therefore accepting Shabbos was like a vow said by mistake which does not need to be disavowed. But there is no obligation of Chanukah candles until the night time so when she lit Shabbos candles she was not obligated in Chanukah candles yet, if so then even accepting Shabbos was like making a vow by mistake nevertheless it was a mistake that just materialized after the vow was made so it needs a special annulment with an excuse and regret in front of 3 or a sage therefore Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach adds that at that point it is better just to ask someone else to light for you. (See Dirshu footnote 5 here.)
- Question: Why can a woman ask someone to light Chanukah candles for her if
she forgot and lit Shabbos candles first but she can’t ask someone to make an
eruv tavshilin for her if she forgot and already lit Yom Tov candles?
A. The Mishna Berura
(679:1:1) says, if a woman is lighting Chanukah candles, since the custom is
that we assume she accepts Shabbos as soon as she lights Shabbos candles, then
she won’t be able to light Chanukah candles herself, rather she should ask
someone else to light for her and he will say the first blessing for her but
she can say the second blessing herself.
B. One can’t light fires
C. There was a decree made that one makes an eruv tavshilin as a means to start cooking for the needs of Shabbos before Yom Tov which permits one to prepare food on Yom Tov for the next day of Shabbos as if preparations is being done for everything and you would not transgress the prohibition of preparing on Yom Tov for the next day.
Answer: Once she accepts upon herself Yom Tov by lighting candles then the whole concept of an eruv tavshilin doesn’t apply to her anymore because it only is applicable before Yom Tov starts but by lighting Chanukah candles the only issue is doing a melacha on Shabbos, transgressing Shabbos so someone who has not accepted Shabbos yet can light candles for her. (See Dirshu footnote 4 here.) [/edit]
- Question: Why would you say both the paragraphs for Shabbos and Rosh
Chodesh In benching at seuda shlishit if you bentched by night fall of a
Shabbos where Rosh Chodesh starts that night but if Purim is on Friday and your
Purim seuda runs into Shabbos then you only say the paragraph of Shabbos and
not Purim in bentching?
A. The Mishna Berura in 188:33 says the reason
you say both by a Shabbos leading into Rosh Chodesh is because the paragraph
for Shabbos is going on the beginning of the meal then we say the paragraph of
Rosh Chodesh (or Yom Tov) afterwards which goes on the second half of the meal.
However according to that logic you should say both paragraphs when Purim goes
B. There is a rabbinic concept called Tosefes Shabbos, adding on to the Shabbos before and after.
Answer: On Shabbos going into Rosh Chodesh there is actually additional minutes going into Rosh Chodesh so can say that when bentching it was for one half of the meal and then for the other half because Shabbos could have been pushed off longer to when they were ready to bentch and then it leads into Rosh Chodesh but once nightfall comes Purim is done and over, even if the meal started during the day so when bentching it is only Shabbos therefore only the paragraph of Shabbos is said. (See Dirshu Mishna Berura note 32 in 695:3:15.)